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What kind of materials can make a good mold?

  1. The mold meets the working conditions requirements
  2. Wear resistance
    When the blank plastically degenerates in the mold cavity, it both flows and slides along the cavity surface, causing severe friction between the cavity surface and the blank, causing the mold to fail due to wear. Therefore, the wear resistance of materials is one of the most basic and important properties of molds. What kind of materials can make a good mold?

Hardness is the main factor affecting wear resistance. Generally speaking, the higher the hardness of the mold parts, the smaller the wear amount and the better the wear resistance. In addition, wear resistance is also related to the type, quantity, shape, size and distribution of carbides in the material.

  1. Strong toughness
    Most of the working conditions of molds are very harsh, and some often bear large impact loads, resulting in brittle fracture. In order to prevent mold parts from suddenly breaking during operation, the mold must have high strength and toughness.https://solidcomould.com/product/baby-chair-mould2/

The toughness of the mold mainly depends on the carbon content, grain size and organizational state of the material.

  1. Fatigue fracture performance
    During the working process of the mold, fatigue fracture is often caused under the long-term action of cyclic stress. Its forms include small energy multiple impact fatigue fracture, tensile fatigue fracture, contact fatigue fracture and bending fatigue fracture.

The fatigue fracture performance of the mold mainly depends on its strength, toughness, hardness, and the content of inclusions in the material.

  1. High temperature performance
    When the working temperature of the mold is higher, the hardness and strength will decrease, leading to early wear or plastic deformation of the mold and failure. Because the mold material should have high anti-tempering stability to ensure that the mold has high hardness and strength at the working temperature.
  2. Heat and cold fatigue resistance
    Some molds are in a state of repeated heating and cooling during the working process, which causes the surface of the cavity to be subjected to tension and pressure changes, causing surface cracks and peeling, increasing friction, hindering plastic deformation, and reducing dimensional accuracy, resulting in Mold failure. Hot and cold fatigue is one of the main forms of failure of hot work molds. This type of mold should have high resistance to cold and hot fatigue.
  3. Corrosion resistance
    When some molds, such as plastic molds, are working, due to the presence of chlorine, fluorine and other elements in the plastic, strong corrosive gases such as hci and hf are decomposed after heating, which erodes the surface of the mold cavity, increases its surface roughness, and aggravates wear and failure.
    1. The mold meets process performance requirements

The manufacturing of molds generally goes through several processes such as forging, cutting, and heat treatment. In order to ensure the manufacturing quality of the mold and reduce the production cost, its material should have good forgeability, machinability, hardenability, hardenability and grindability; it should also have small oxidation, decarburization sensitivity and quenching Tendency to deform and crack.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2022.123365

  1. Forgeability
    It has low hot forging deformation resistance, good plasticity, wide forging temperature range, and low tendency of forging cold cracking and network carbide precipitation.
  2. Annealing process
    The spheroidizing annealing temperature range is wide, the annealing hardness is low and the fluctuation range is small, and the spheroidizing rate is high.
  3. Cutting processability
    The cutting amount is large, the tool loss is low, and the machined surface roughness is low.
  4. Oxidation and decarburization sensitivity
    When heated at high temperatures, it has good antioxidant properties, slow decarburization, is not sensitive to heating media, and has a small tendency to produce pitting.
  5. Hardenability
    It has uniform and high surface hardness after quenching.
  6. Hardenability
    After quenching, a deeper hardened layer can be obtained, which can be hardened using a gentle quenching medium.
  7. Quenching deformation and cracking tendency
    Conventional quenching has small volume changes, slight shape warping and distortion, and low abnormal deformation tendency. Conventional quenching has low cracking sensitivity and is not sensitive to quenching temperature and workpiece shape.
  8. Grindability
    The relative loss of the grinding wheel is small, the limit grinding amount without burns is large, it is not sensitive to the quality of the grinding wheel and cooling conditions, and it is not prone to wear and grinding cracks.
    1. The mold meets economic requirements

When selecting mold materials, the principle of economy must be considered to reduce manufacturing costs as much as possible. Therefore, on the premise of satisfying the performance, first choose the one with lower price. If you can use carbon steel, you will not need alloy steel. If you can use domestic materials, you will not need imported materials. In addition, the production and supply situation of the market should also be considered when selecting materials. The selected steel types should be as few and concentrated as possible and easy to purchase.

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